Sam Plummer is a Senior Manager working with Professor Bruce Western on the Rikers Island Longitudinal Study, the Pennsylvania Solitary Study, and a field experiment on monetary sanctions in Oklahoma. Prior to joining the Justice Lab, she completed her PhD in sociology at the University of Pittsburgh, where her research focused on poverty, inequality, and social services. At Pitt, she also contributed to research projects on transnational social movement organizations and corporate responses to labor activism. Sam has worked as a consultant to the United Nations Development Programme and Operation Restoration, a New Orleans-based organization that supports women and girls affected by incarceration. She has volunteered as a tutor and writing coach at the Fayette State Correctional Institute in Pennsylvania and the Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women and served as an AmeriCorps member at Youth Villages-Inner Harbour, a psychiatric residential treatment facility for youth. She holds a Bachelor of Arts in religion and history from Colgate University.